The Pillow Lace plaque is located in front of 5 High Street in Ipswich. In the mid-18th Century a group of Ipswich women started making and selling lace with distinctive patterns. Small round lap pillows were used to pace the bobbins and needles as the lace grew around it. Ipswich lace quickly became very popular and played an important role during the American Revolution.

pillowwlace_sign

Bonnie Hurd Smith explains that “The women were doing it while the men were at war, and many men were killed, so their widows needed to make money to support their families.” Ipswich women “used lace making as a way to endure.” We read in “The Laces of Ipswich.” that a yard of lace “was approximately equal in value to a cord of wood or 16 pounds of sheep’s wool.” When George Washington’s 1789 visit to Ipswich in 1789 he purchased some black silk lace for his wife, Martha.

At the height of its popularity the women and girls of Ipswich were producing more than 40,000 yards of lace annually. In the 1820s Ipswich industrialists imported machines from England to mechanize and speed up the operation, and opened a factory on this site. Their efforts destroyed the industry. Lace was now mass-produced and no longer a symbol of wealth. Read more about the pillow lace industry in Fine Thread, Lace and Hosiery by Jesse Fewkes.

Susan Lord Russell Lakeman in 1903 at the age of 88. Photo courtesy of the Ipswich Historical Society and the book,
Susan Lord Russell Lakeman in 1903 at the age of 88. Photo is from the book, “The Laces of Ipswich.” courtesy of the Ipswich Museum. Susan Lord Russell Lakeman was born to Mary Sutton and Daniel Russell Sr., who built a house on East Street, still standing. The family included many pillow lace makers, beginning with her grandmother Elizabeth Foster Sutton. Susan Russell was one of the last to witness the pillow lace industry of the 18th Century. She married Ebenezer Lakeman in 1845. Their daughter Susan E. Lakeman kept the oral tradition alive and lectured about the pillow lace industry until her death in 1937.
Netscher’s The Lace Maker.
Netscher’s The Lace Maker.

The following is taken from “A Walking Tour and Brief History of Early Ipswich Massachusetts“ produced by the Ipswich Visitors Center, Marjorie Robie and William Varrell

The Pillow Lace Site has much history attached to it. One of the early owners was Dr. Thomas Berry. He was an active supporter of education and served the colony in many ways. But he was a strong-minded character, very typical of Ipswich citizens over the years. He drove around town in a chariot with liveried slaves, frequently dressed in red satin breeches and cape. Citizens would bow respectfully as he passed.

At that time, there was a path that cut across the hill behind his house which led to a spring at the top of the hill. He obtained permission to exclusive use of that spring for his family. He would run up the hill with his children every morning for a cold bath. This regimen failed to save them from the terrible throat distemper epidemic, diphtheria, that swept through eastern Massachusetts between 1727 and 1737. Three of his children died.

The old pillow lace factory on High St. was converted into a residence known as the Ross Mansion. The building no longer stands.
The old lace factory on High St. was converted into a residence known as the Ross Mansion. The building no longer stands, but the granite base of the fence still borders the sidewalk.
“The Lace Maker” by Charles-Amable Lenoir

Later, the property became the property of the New England Lace Manufacturing Company, another of the Heard family enterprises. They were attempting to use the new knitting machines to make lace. The thread broke frequently, so they decided to try silk. Augustine Heard brought silk worm cocoons into the country secured in the waist bands of Chinese coolies to maintain the needed warmth. Mulberry bushes were planted up the hill to provide food, but the silk threads they produced wouldn’t work either. The enterprise was ended, and the building passed later into the Ross family who converted it to a Federal style mansion, torn down circa 1930.

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